Appendix

Election Worker Security

Appendix A

Source Title Date of
Publication
Link Citation
Alliance for Securing Democracy How To Retain Election Officials To Secure Future Elections: Recommendations for State and Local Governments and Their Election Officials Jun. 4, 2021 How To Retain Election Officials To Secure Future Elections: Recommendations for State and Local Governments and Their Election Officials David Levine, All. for Securing Democracy, How To Retain Election Officials To Secure Future Elections: Recommendations for State and Local Governments and Their Election Officials (2021).
Bipartisan Policy Center Improving the Voting Experience After 2020 Apr. 6, 2021 Improving the Voting Experience After 2020 Rachel Orey & Matt Weil, Bipartisan Pol’y Ctr., Improving the Voting Experience After 2020 (2021).
Brennan Center for Justice Local Election Officials Survey (March 2022) Mar. 10, 2022 Local Election Officials Survey (March 2022) Brennan Ctr. for Just., Local Election Officiails Survey (March 2022) (2022).
Brennan Center for Justice Local Election Officials Survey (June 2021) Jun. 16, 2021 Local Election Officials Survey (June 2021) Brennan Ctr. for Just., Local Election Officiails Survey (June 2021) (2021).
Brennan Center for Justice & Bipartisan Policy Center Election Officials Under Attack Jun. 16, 2021 Election Officials Under Attack Brennan Ctr. for Just. & Bipar­tisan Pol’y Ctr., Election Officials Under Attack (2021).
California Voter Foundation Documenting and Addressing Harassment of Election Officials Jun. 9, 2021 Documenting and Addressing Harassment of Election Officials Grace Gordon et al., Cal. Voter Found., Documenting and Addressing Harassment of Election Officials (2021).
Congressional Research Service Election Worker Safety and Privacy Dec. 21, 2021 Election Worker Safety and Privacy Sarah J. Eckman & Karen L. Shanton, Cong. Rsch. Serv., Election Worker Safety and Privacy (2021).
Democracy Fund Pursuing Diversity and Representation Among Local Election Officials May 20, 2021 Pursuing Diversity and Representation Among Local Election Officials Paul Gronke et al., Democracy Fund, Pursuing Diversity and Representation Among Local Election Officials (2021).
Democracy Fund Understanding the Career Journeys of Today’s Local Election Officials and Anticipating Tomorrow’s Potential Shortage Apr. 20, 2021 Understanding the Career Journeys of Today’s Local Election Officials and Anticipating Tomorrow’s Potential Shortage Paul Gronke et al., Democracy Fund, Understanding the Career Journeys of Today’s Local Election Officials and Anticipating Tomorrow’s Potential Shortage (2021).
Protect Democracy, Secure Democracy & Ragnar Research Partners New poll finds strong bipartisan support for congressional action to address election subversion Aug. 3, 2021 New poll finds strong bipartisan support for congressional action to address election subversion Protect Democracy, Secure Democracy & Ragnar Rsch. Partners, New poll finds strong bipartisan support for congressional action to address election subversion (2021).
Stanford Internet Observatory Cyber Policy Center The 2020 Elections Oral History Project 2021 The 2020 Elections Oral History Project Cyber Pol’y Ctr., Stanford Internet Observatory, The 2020 Elections Oral History Project (2021).
Stanford Internet Observatory Cyber Policy Center Zero Trust: How to Secure American Elections When the Losers Won’t Accept They Lost Oct. 1, 2021 Zero Trust: How to Secure American Elections When the Losers Won’t Accept They Lost Matt Masterson et al., Cyber Pol’y Ctr., Stanford Internet Observatory, Zero Trust: How to Secure American Elections When the Losers Won’t Accept They Lost (2021).
The Elections Group Running Elections Without Fear: Ensuring Physical Safety for Election Personnel 2021 Running Elections Without Fear: Ensuring Physical Safety for Election Personnel The Elections Grp., Running Elections Without Fear: Ensuring Physical Safety for Election Personnel (2021).
The Elections Group Defending Democracy: Protecting Elections Officials From Digital Threats Apr. 2021 Defending Democracy: Protecting Elections Officials From Digital Threats The Elections Grp., Defending Democracy: Protecting Elections Officials From Digital Threats (2021).
The Elections Group Election Security in a Time of Disturbance: Standing Up to Intimidation, Preventing Overt Attack Oct. 2020 Election Security in a Time of Disturbance: Standing Up to Intimidation, Preventing Overt Attack The Elections Grp., Election Security in a Time of Disturbance: Standing Up to Intimidation, Preventing Overt Attack (2020).
The Pew Charitable Trusts States Want to Boost Protections for Threatened Local Election Officials Mar. 9, 2022 States Want to Boost Protections for Threatened Local Election Officials Matt Vasilogambros, The Pew Charitable Tr., States Want to Boost Protections for Threatened Local Election Officials (2022).

Appendix B

State Publication Title Date Link Bluebook
Wisconsin Green Bay Press Gazzette A shortage of Green Bay poll workers has the city clerk scrambling ahead of the April 5 spring election March 31, 2022 https://www.greenbaypressgazette.com/story/news/politics/elections/2022/03/31/green-bay-needs-poll-workers-2022-spring-election-april-5/7221040001/ Natalie Eilbert, A shortage of Green Bay poll workers has the city clerk scrambling ahead of the April 5 spring election, Green Bay Press Gazzette (Mar. 31, 2022), https://www.greenbaypressgazette.com/story/news/politics/elections/2022/03/31/green-bay-needs-poll-workers-2022-spring-election-april-5/7221040001/
National Reuters U.S. election workers get little help from law enforcement as terror threats mount Sept. 9, 2011 https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/usa-election-threats-law-enforcement/ Linda So & Jason Szep, U.S. election workers get little help from law enforcement as terror threats mount, Reuters (Sept. 9, 2011), https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/usa-election-threats-law-enforcement/
National Reuters New U.S. legislation seeks to expand protections for election workers Oct. 4, 2021 https://www.reuters.com/world/us/new-us-legislation-seeks-expand-protections-election-workers-2021-10-04/ Linda So, New U.S. legislation seeks to expand protections for election workers, Reuters (Oct. 4, 2021), https://www.reuters.com/world/us/new-us-legislation-seeks-expand-protections-election-workers-2021-10-04/
National Reuters Trump-inspired death threats are terrorizing election workers June 11, 2021 https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/usa-trump-georgia-threats Linda So, Trump-inspired death threats are terrorizing election workers, Reuters (June 11, 2021), https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/usa-trump-georgia-threats
National Reuters U.S. lawmakers seek to protect election workers after Reuters investigation Sept. 10, 2021 https://www.reuters.com/world/us/us-lawmakers-seek-protect-election-workers-after-reuters-investigation-2021-09-10/ Linda So & Jason Szep, U.S. lawmakers seek to protect election workers after Reuters investigation (Sept. 10, 2021), https://www.reuters.com/world/us/us-lawmakers-seek-protect-election-workers-after-reuters-investigation-2021-09-10/
National AP States seek to protect election workers amid growing threats Feb. 3, 2022 https://apnews.com/article/voting-rights-election-workers-threats-f1627081d9901cbc1f50d10a416af719 Lisa Rathke & Christina A. Cassidy, States seek to protect election workers amid growing threats, AP News (Feb. 3, 2022), https://apnews.com/article/voting-rights-election-workers-threats-f1627081d9901cbc1f50d10a416af719
Michigan Michigan Radio Levin introduces bill to protect election workers: “This is existential to our democracy” Mar. 4, 2022 https://www.michiganradio.org/politics-government/2022-03-04/levin-introduces-bill-to-protect-election-workers-this-is-existential-to-our-democracy Sarah Cwiek, Levin introduces bill to protect election workers: “This is existential to our democracy”, Michigan Radio (Mar. 4, 2022), https://www.michiganradio.org/politics-government/2022-03-04/levin-introduces-bill-to-protect-election-workers-this-is-existential-to-our-democracy
National USA Today Election workers faced new threats after 2020 election. Experts fear it will drive them away Feb. 7, 2022 https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2022/02/07/election-workers-threats-midterms/9239699002/?gnt-cfr=1 Rick Rouan & Deborah Barfield Berry, Election workers faced new threats after 2020 election. Experts fear it will drive them away, USA Today, Feb. 7, 2022, https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2022/02/07/election-workers-threats-midterms/9239699002/?gnt-cfr=1
National NASS NASS Resolution on Threats of Violence Toward Election Officials and Election Workers Feb. 5, 2021 https://www.nass.org/node/2190 NASS Resolution on Threats of Violence Toward Election Officials and Election Workers, NASS. Res. (2021)
National NASED NASED Statement on the Start of the 2022 Election Season Jan. 6, 2022 https://www.nased.org/news/2022elections NASED Statement on the Start of the 2022 Election Season, National Association of State Election Directors, Jan. 6, 2022, https://www.nased.org/news/2022elections
National States United Democracy Center Protecting Against Election Violence Dec. 12, 2020 https://statesuniteddemocracy.org/2020/12/16/12-16-protecting-against-election-violence/
National VICE People Left Death Threats for Election Workers. We Called Them Back. 1/10/2022 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t3w5NuUsOq8&ab_channel=VICENews VICE News, People Left Death Threats for Election Workers. We Called Them Back, YouTube (Jan. 10, 2022), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t3w5NuUsOq8
National VICE Death Threats Are Creating a Mass Exodus of Election Officials 10/20/2021 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-3biHbWwLhU&ab_channel=VICENews VICE News, Death Threats Are Creating a Mass Exodus of Election Officials, YouTube (Oct. 20, 2021), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-3biHbWwLhU&ab_channel=VICENews
National DOJ Texas Man Arrested for Making Election-Related Threats to Government Officials 1/21/2022 https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/texas-man-arrested-making-election-related-threats-government-officials Press Release, Department of Justice Office of Public Affairs, Texas Man Arrested for Making Election-Related Threats to Government Officials (Jan. 21, 2022),
https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/texas-man-arrested-making-election-related-threats-government-officials
National Washington Post ‘We are in harm’s way’: Election officials fear for their personal safety amid torrent of false claims about voting 8/11/2021 https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/election-officials-threats/2021/08/11/bb2cf002-f9ed-11eb-9c0e-97e29906a970_story.html Tom Hamburger, Rosalind S. Helderman & Amy Gardner, ‘We are in harm’s way’: Election officials fear for their personal safety amid torrent of false claims about voting, Wash. Post (Aug. 11, 2021), https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/election-officials-threats/2021/08/11/bb2cf002-f9ed-11eb-9c0e-97e29906a970_story.html
National Reuters Colorado bill would criminalize threats against election officials 2/8/2022 https://www.reuters.com/legal/government/colorado-bill-would-criminalize-threats-against-election-officials-2022-02-08/ Linda So & Jason Szep, Colorado bill would criminalize threats against election officials, Reuters (Feb. 8, 2022), https://www.reuters.com/legal/government/colorado-bill-would-criminalize-threats-against-election-officials-2022-02-08/
National Reuters Special Report: Reuters unmasks Trump supporters who terrified U.S. election workers 11/9/2021 https://www.reuters.com/legal/government/reuters-unmasks-trump-supporters-terrifying-us-election-workers-2021-11-09/ Linda So & Jason Szep, Special Report: Reuters unmasks Trump supporters who terrified U.S. election workers, Reuters (Nov. 9, 2021), https://www.reuters.com/legal/government/reuters-unmasks-trump-supporters-terrifying-us-election-workers-2021-11-09/
National The Independant Trump allies planned harassment and intimidation campaign against election officials and ‘weak’ House members, documents show 1/3/2022 https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/us-politics/donald-trump-documents-election-harassment-b1985982.html Andrew Feinberg, Trump allies planned harassment and intimidation campaign against election officials and ‘weak’ House members, documents show, The Independant (Jan. 3, 2022), https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/us-politics/donald-trump-documents-election-harassment-b1985982.html
National AP Exodus of election officials raises concerns of partisanship 6/13/2022 https://apnews.com/article/election-officials-retire-trump-2020-threats-misinformation-3b810d8b3b3adee2ca409689788b863f Anthony Izaguirre, Exodus of election officials raises concerns of partisanship, Associated Press (June 13, 2022), https://apnews.com/article/election-officials-retire-trump-2020-threats-misinformation-3b810d8b3b3adee2ca409689788b863f
National Reuters Trump campaign demonized two Georgia election workers – and death threats followed 12/1/2021 https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/usa-election-threats-georgia/ Linda So & Jason Szep, Trump campaign demonized two Georgia election workers – and death threats followed, Reuters (Dec. 1, 2021), https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/usa-election-threats-georgia/
Texas Texas Tribune “God’s will is being thwarted.” Even in solid Republican counties, hard-liners seek more partisan control of elections. 10/1/2021 https://www.texastribune.org/2021/10/01/texas-election-official-hood/ Jeremy Schwartz, “God’s will is being thwarted.” Even in solid Republican counties, hard-liners seek more partisan control of elections, Tex. Trib. (Oct. 1, 2021), https://www.texastribune.org/2021/10/01/texas-election-official-hood/  
Texas Texas Tribune Amid Texas GOP’s effort to question electoral integrity, attorney general tried to indict Travis County elections chief 12/20/2021 https://www.texastribune.org/2021/12/20/texas-ken-paxton-travis-county-elections/ Reese Oxner, Amid Texas GOP’s effort to question electoral integrity, attorney general tried to indict Travis County elections chief, Tex. Trib. (Dec. 20. 2021), https://www.texastribune.org/2021/12/20/texas-ken-paxton-travis-county-elections/
Texas Texas Tribune Trump won Hood County in a landslide. His supporters still hounded the elections administrator until she resigned. 10/12/2021 https://www.texastribune.org/2021/10/12/hood-county-elections-administrator-trump/ Jeremy Schwartz, Trump won Hood County in a landslide. His supporters still hounded the elections administrator until she resigned., Tex. Trib. (Oct. 12, 2021), https://www.texastribune.org/2021/10/12/hood-county-elections-administrator-trump/
National Newsweek Trump Supporters Sending Death Threats to Election Workers Spark New Bills in These States 1/24/2022 https://www.newsweek.com/trump-supporters-sending-death-threats-election-workers-spark-new-bills-these-states-1672302 Natalie Colarossi, Trump Supporters Sending Death Threats to Election Workers Spark New Bills in These States, Newsweek, (Jan. 24, 2022), https://www.newsweek.com/trump-supporters-sending-death-threats-election-workers-spark-new-bills-these-states-1672302
Vermont Burlington Free Press Vermont investigators explain lack of arrests in threats against 2020 election officials 11/11/2021 https://www.burlingtonfreepress.com/story/news/local/2021/11/11/vermont-officials-investigated-threats-after-2020-election/6383785001/ Elizabeth Murray, Vermont investigators explain lack of arrests in threats against 2020 election officials,
Burlington Free Press, (Nov. 11, 2021), https://www.burlingtonfreepress.com/story/news/local/2021/11/11/vermont-officials-investigated-threats-after-2020-election/6383785001/
National The Guardian US election officials still plagued by threats for certifying Trump defeat 6/14/2021 https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2021/jun/14/us-election-officials-threats-trump-defeat Linda So, US election officials still plagued by threats for certifying Trump defeat, The Guardian, (Jun. 14, 2021), https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2021/jun/14/us-election-officials-threats-trump-defeat
National USA Today Election workers faced new threats after 2020 election. Experts fear it will drive them away 2/7/2022 https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2022/02/07/election-workers-threats-midterms/9239699002/?gnt-cfr=1 Rick Rouan & Deborah Barfield Berry, Election workers faced new threats after 2020 election. Experts fear it will drive them away, USA Today, (Feb. 7, 2022), https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2022/02/07/election-workers-threats-midterms/9239699002/?gnt-cfr=1
National AP States seek to protect election workers amid growing threats 2/3/2022 https://apnews.com/article/voting-rights-election-workers-threats-f1627081d9901cbc1f50d10a416af719 Lisa Rathke & Christina A. Cassidy, States seek to protect election workers amid growing threats, Associated Press (Feb. 3, 2022), https://apnews.com/article/voting-rights-election-workers-threats-f1627081d9901cbc1f50d10a416af719
National New York Times G.O.P. Seeks to Empower Poll Watchers, Raising Intimidation Worries 5/1/2021 https://www.nytimes.com/2021/05/01/us/politics/republican-pollwatchers.html Nick Corasaniti, G.O.P. Seeks to Empower Poll Watchers, Raising Intimidation Worries, N.Y. Times (May 1, 2021), https://www.nytimes.com/2021/05/01/us/politics/republican-pollwatchers.html
National USA Today Partisan intimidation’: Iowa official’s resignation raises fears of politicized local election offices 5/30/2021 https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2021/05/30/iowa-official-resignation-raises-fears-politicized-local-elections/5272013001/ Thomas Beaumont & Anthony Izaguirre, ‘Partisan intimidation’: Iowa official’s resignation raises fears of politicized local election offices, USA Today, (May 30, 2021), https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2021/05/30/iowa-official-resignation-raises-fears-politicized-local-elections/5272013001/
National Newsweek Police Arrested Only Four Trump Supporters Who Threatened Election Workers, Elected Officials 9/8/2021 https://www.newsweek.com/police-arrested-only-four-trump-supporters-who-threatened-election-workers-elected-officials-1627283 Daniel Villareal, Police Arrested Only Four Trump Supporters Who Threatened Election Workers, Elected Officials, Newsweek, (Sep. 8 2021), https://www.newsweek.com/police-arrested-only-four-trump-supporters-who-threatened-election-workers-elected-officials-1627283
Michigan MLive Ann Harbor Election workers faced ‘unprecedented number of threats’ in 2020, prompting legislation 8/20/2021 https://www.mlive.com/public-interest/2021/08/election-workers-faced-unprecedented-number-of-threats-in-2020-prompting-legislation.html Samuel J. Robinson, Election workers faced ‘unprecedented number of threats’ in 2020, prompting legislation, MLive.com, (Aug. 20, 2021), https://www.mlive.com/public-interest/2021/08/election-workers-faced-unprecedented-number-of-threats-in-2020-prompting-legislation.html
Alaska Anchorage Daily News Election officials faced ‘unprecedented harassment’ during Anchorage mayor’s runoff, report says 5/27/2021 https://www.adn.com/alaska-news/anchorage/2021/05/26/city-clerks-report-on-anchorage-mayors-runoff-election-says-election-officials-faced-unprecedented-harassment/ Emily Goodykoontz, Election officials faced ‘unprecedented harassment’ during Anchorage mayor’s runoff, report says, Anchorage Daily News, (May 26, 2021), https://www.adn.com/alaska-news/anchorage/2021/05/26/city-clerks-report-on-anchorage-mayors-runoff-election-says-election-officials-faced-unprecedented-harassment/
National Reuters Kanye West publicist pressed Georgia election worker to confess to bogus fraud charges 12/23/2021 https://www.reuters.com/business/media-telecom/kanye-west-publicist-pressed-georgia-election-worker-confess-bogus-fraud-charges-2021-12-10/ Jason Szep & Linda So, Kanye West publicist pressed Georgia election worker to confess to bogus fraud charges, Reuters, (Dec. 23, 2021), https://www.reuters.com/business/media-telecom/kanye-west-publicist-pressed-georgia-election-worker-confess-bogus-fraud-charges-2021-12-10/
Wisconsin PBS Wisconsin Beset by the pandemic, personal threats and politics, local clerks focus on elections 4/5/2022 https://pbswisconsin.org/news-item/beset-by-the-pandemic-personal-threats-and-politics-local-clerks-focus-on-elections/ Gaby Vinick, Beset by the pandemic, personal threats and politics, local clerks focus on elections, PBS Wis., (Apr. 5, 2022), https://pbswisconsin.org/news-item/beset-by-the-pandemic-personal-threats-and-politics-local-clerks-focus-on-elections/
National The Guardian It’s been a barrage every day’: US election workers face threats and harassment
This article is more than 5 mo
11/1/2021 https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2021/nov/01/us-election-workers-threats-violence Sam Levine, ‘It’s been a barrage every day’: US election workers face threats and harassment, The Guardian, (Nov. 1, 2021), https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2021/nov/01/us-election-workers-threats-violence
National POLITICO Local election officials are exhausted, under threat and thinking about quitting 3/10/2022 https://www.politico.com/news/2022/03/10/election-officials-exhausted-under-threat-00015850 Zach Montellaro, Local election officials are exhausted, under threat and thinking about quitting, POLITICO, (Mar. 10, 2022), https://www.politico.com/news/2022/03/10/election-officials-exhausted-under-threat-00015850
Maine Press Herald Legislative panel endorses bills to strengthen election protections 2/7/2022 https://www.pressherald.com/2022/02/07/legislative-panel-endorses-bills-to-strengthen-election-protections/ Dennis Hoey, Legislative panel endorses bills to strengthen election protections, Press Herald, (Feb. 7, 2022), https://www.pressherald.com/2022/02/07/legislative-panel-endorses-bills-to-strengthen-election-protections/
Pennsylvania Pittsburgh Post-Gazette Al Schmidt: The need for greater election security 3/17/2022 https://www.post-gazette.com/opinion/Op-Ed/2022/03/17/election-security-violence-threats/stories/202203170045 Al Schmidt, Editorial, Al Schmidt: The need for greater election security, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, (Mar. 17, 2022), https://www.post-gazette.com/opinion/Op-Ed/2022/03/17/election-security-violence-threats/stories/202203170045
California ABC 10 Sacramento California considers letting election workers hide addresses 3/28/2022 https://www.abc10.com/article/news/local/california-considers-letting-election-workers-hide-address/103-89230c2c-22cb-4328-a147-a12f210a3b91 Associated Press, California considers letting election workers hide addresses, ABC 10, (Mar. 28, 2022), https://www.abc10.com/article/news/local/california-considers-letting-election-workers-hide-address/103-89230c2c-22cb-4328-a147-a12f210a3b91
Michigan News Channel 3 As election season approaches, some Michigan election officials prepare for threats 3/24/2022 https://wwmt.com/news/local/as-election-season-approaches-some-michigan-election-officials-prepare-for-threats Rachel Louise Just, As election season approaches, some Michigan election officials prepare for threats, News Channel 3, (Mar. 14, 2022), https://wwmt.com/news/local/as-election-season-approaches-some-michigan-election-officials-prepare-for-threats
Colorado Longmont Leader Election workers get more protection from threats under proposed legislation 4/2/2022 https://www.longmontleader.com/local-news/election-workers-get-more-protection-from-threats-under-proposed-legislation-5224803 Monte Whaley, Election workers get more protection from threats under proposed legislation, Longmont Leader, (Apr. 2, 2022), https://www.longmontleader.com/local-news/election-workers-get-more-protection-from-threats-under-proposed-legislation-5224803
Michigan The Detroit News I feel afraid’: Detroit clerk Winfrey testifies to U.S. House panel on death threats she received 7/28/2021 https://www.detroitnews.com/story/news/politics/2021/07/28/winfrey-testifies-before-house-panel-threats-election-workers/5400419001/ Melissa Nann Burke & George Hunter, ‘I feel afraid’: Detroit clerk Winfrey testifies to U.S. House panel on death threats she received, The Detroit News, (Jul. 28, 2021), https://www.detroitnews.com/story/news/politics/2021/07/28/winfrey-testifies-before-house-panel-threats-election-workers/5400419001/
Michigan The Philadelphia Inquirer Philly elections officials are getting death threats as Trump targets the city 11/9/2020 https://www.inquirer.com/politics/election/philadelphia-elections-officials-death-threats-20201109.html Jonathan Lai, Philly elections officials are getting death threats as Trump targets the city, The Phila. Inquirer, (Nov. 9, 2020), https://www.inquirer.com/politics/election/philadelphia-elections-officials-death-threats-20201109.html
Oregon KATU 10 Oregon bill would protect election workers from threats, harassment 2/15/2022 https://katu.com/news/local/oregon-bill-would-protect-election-workers-from-threats-harassment KATU Staff, Oregon bill would protect election workers from threats, harassment, KATU 10, (Feb. 15, 2022), https://katu.com/news/local/oregon-bill-would-protect-election-workers-from-threats-harassment
National ABC News Threats, pressures faced by poll workers pose ‘existential threat to our democracy,’ experts warn 6/25/2021 https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/threats-pressures-faced-poll-workers-pose-existential-threat/story?id=78463963 Lucien Bruggerman, Laura Romero & Olivia Rubin, Threats, pressures faced by poll workers pose ‘existential threat to our democracy,’ experts warn, ABC News (June, 25, 2021), https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/threats-pressures-faced-poll-workers-pose-existential-threat/story?id=78463963
National ProPublica For Election Administrators, Death Threats Have Become Part of the Job 8/21/2020 https://www.propublica.org/article/for-election-administrators-death-threats-have-become-part-of-the-job Jessica Huesman, For Election Administrators, Death Threats Have Become Part of the Job, ProPublica, (Aug. 21, 2020), https://www.propublica.org/article/for-election-administrators-death-threats-have-become-part-of-the-job
National Reveal Inside the GOP’s Purge of Local Election Officials in Michigan 4/4/2021 https://revealnews.org/article/inside-the-gops-purge-of-local-election-officials-in-michigan/ Trey Bundy, Inside the GOP’s Purge of Local Election Officials in Michigan, Reveal (Apr. 4, 2021),  https://revealnews.org/article/inside-the-gops-purge-of-local-election-officials-in-michigan/
National PBS Newshour Expert fears partisan actors may replace election workers who quit over threats 11/2/2021 https://www.pbs.org/newshour/show/expert-fears-partisan-actors-may-replace-election-workers-who-quit-over-threats Stephanie Sy & Geoffrey Lou Guray, Expert fears partisan actors may replace election workers who quit over threats, PBS Newshour, (Nov. 2, 2021), https://www.pbs.org/newshour/show/expert-fears-partisan-actors-may-replace-election-workers-who-quit-over-threats
National DOJ Man Charged for Threatening Nevada State Election Worker 1/27/2022 https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/man-charged-threatening-nevada-state-election-worker Press Release, Department of Justice Office of Public Affairs, Man Charged for Threatening Nevada State Election Worker, (Jan. 27, 2022),
https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/man-charged-threatening-nevada-state-election-worker
National POLITICO ‘Potential crisis for democracy’: Threats to election workers could spur mass retirements 6/16/2021 https://www.politico.com/news/2021/06/16/election-workers-mass-retirements-494790 Zach Montellaro, ‘Potential crisis for democracy’: Threats to election workers could spur mass retirements, POLITICO, (June 16, 2021), https://www.politico.com/news/2021/06/16/election-workers-mass-retirements-494790
National New York Times State Election Officials Are Under Attack. We Will Defend Them. 6/4/2021 https://www.nytimes.com/2021/06/04/opinion/republican-state-laws-election-officials.html Bob Bauer & Ben Ginsberg, State Election Officials Are Under Attack. We Will Defend Them, N.Y. Times, (June 4, 2021), https://www.nytimes.com/2021/06/04/opinion/republican-state-laws-election-officials.html
National New York Times Jail Time and Big Fines: G.O.P. Seeks Harsh Penalties for Poll Workers 5/14/2021 https://www.nytimes.com/2021/05/15/us/politics/republican-voting-bills-poll-workers.html Nick Corasaniti, Jail Time and Big Fines: G.O.P. Seeks Harsh Penalties for Poll Workers, N.Y. Times, (May 14, 2021), https://www.nytimes.com/2021/05/15/us/politics/republican-voting-bills-poll-workers.html
National DOJ JUSTICE DEPARTMENT LAUNCHES TASK FORCE TO COMBAT THREATS AGAINST ELECTION WORKERS 7/29/2021 https://www.justice.gov/opa/blog/justice-department-launches-task-force-combat-threats-against-election-workers-0 Press Release, Department of Justice Office of Public Affairs, JUSTICE DEPARTMENT LAUNCHES TASK FORCE TO COMBAT THREATS AGAINST ELECTION WORKERS, (Jul. 29, 2021), https://www.justice.gov/opa/blog/justice-department-launches-task-force-combat-threats-against-election-workers-0
National The Hill Florida poll worker details alleged harassment, assault from Trump supporters: ‘We were in a war zone’ 11/05/20 https://thehill.com/homenews/state-watch/524646-florida-poll-worker-details-alleged-harassment-assault-from-trump/ Morgan Gstalter, Florida poll worker details alleged harassment, assault from Trump supporters: ‘We were in a war zone’, The Hill, (Nov. 05, 2020), https://thehill.com/homenews/state-watch/524646-florida-poll-worker-details-alleged-harassment-assault-from-trump/
California Los Angeles Times Essential Politics: California’s elections official exodus 4/12/2021 https://www.latimes.com/politics/newsletter/2021-04-12/california-elections-officials-exodus-essential-politics John Myers, Essential Politics: California’s elections official exodus, L.A. Times, (Apr. 12, 2021), https://www.latimes.com/politics/newsletter/2021-04-12/california-elections-officials-exodus-essential-politics
Virginia The News & Advance Report: Lynchburg poll workers claimed threats, harassment on Election Day 12/10/2021 https://newsadvance.com/news/local/govt-and-politics/report-lynchburg-poll-workers-claimed-threats-harassment-on-election-day/article_73ab24ec-5a05-11ec-ac09-a3bcf8efcbf6.html Rachel Mahoney, Report: Lynchburg poll workers claimed threats, harassment on Election Day, The News & Observer, (Dec. 10, 2021), https://newsadvance.com/news/local/govt-and-politics/report-lynchburg-poll-workers-claimed-threats-harassment-on-election-day/article_73ab24ec-5a05-11ec-ac09-a3bcf8efcbf6.html
National The New York Times Here Are the Threats Terrorizing Election Workers 12/3/2021 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/12/03/us/election-officials-threats-trump.html Michael Wines, Here Are the Threats Terrorizing Election Workers, N.Y. Times, Dec. 3, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/12/03/us/election-officials-threats-trump.html
National ProPublica After a Wave of Violent Threats Against Election Workers, Georgia Sees Few Arrests 3/3/2021 https://www.propublica.org/article/after-a-wave-of-violent-threats-against-election-workers-georgia-sees-few-arrests Sonam Vashi, After a Wave of Violent Threats Against Election Workers, Georgia Sees Few Arrests, ProPublica, (Mar. 3, 2021), https://www.propublica.org/article/after-a-wave-of-violent-threats-against-election-workers-georgia-sees-few-arrests

Appendix C

Statute Prohibited Conduct Link Notes
18 U.S.C. § 245(b)(1)(A) “Whoever, whether or not acting under color of law, by force or threat of force willfully injures, intimidates or interferes with, or attempts to injure, intimidate or interfere with … any person because he is or has been, or in order to intimidate such person or any other person or any class of persons from … qualifying or acting as a poll watcher, or any legally authorized election official, in any primary, special, or general election” https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/245 Requires certification by the Attorney General to bring federal prosecution
18 U.S.C. § 875 Prohibits making various threatening communications in interstate commerce https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/875 Has been used to prosecute individuals for making threats to election workers
47 U.S.C. § 223(a) Prohibits making various harassing communications in interstate commerce https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/47/223 Has been used to prosecute individuals for harassing election workers
52 U.S.C. § 10307(b) “No person, whether acting under color of law or otherwise, shall intimidate, threaten, or coerce, or attempt to intimidate, threaten, or coerce any person for … urging or aiding any person to vote or attempt to vote.” https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/52/10307 VRA § 11(b); Could be read to extend to election workers. See Mich. Welfare Rights Org., et al. v. Trump, et al., No. CV 20-3388, 2022 WL 990704 (D.D.C. Apr. 1, 2022).
Legislation Proposed in the 117th Congress:
Bill Prohibited Conduct Sponsors Consolidated In
The Election Worker and Polling Place Protection Act, S. 2928, 117th Cong. (2021) Expands 18 U.S.C. § 245 to include threats of force or violence against “any agent, contractor, or vendor of a legally authorized election official” and physical damage to “election infrastructure.” This provides DOJ, upon certification by the Attorney General that prosecution “is in the public interest and necessary to secure substantial justice,” with the power to prosecute anyone who threatens or uses violence against election officials, agents of election officials, and physical property used in election infrastructure. Ossoff The John R. Lewis Voting Rights Advancement Act of 2021, S. 4, 117th Cong. § 202 (2021)
The Preventing Election Subversion Act of 2021, S. 2155, H.R. 4064, 117th Cong. §§ 2-3 (2021) Section 2 adds a new section to chapter 29 of title 18 of the U.S. Code (the Help America Vote Act of 2002), making it unlawful for any person “to intimidate, threaten, coerce, or attempt to intimidate, threaten, or coerce an election worker” with the intent to interfere with the worker’s official duties. Section 3 would make it unlawful for any person to knowingly make restricted personal information about  election workers or their immediate family publicly available. Senate: Klobuchar, Merkley, Warner, Ossoff, Wyden, Baldwin, Hirono. House: Lofgren, Williams, Allred, Jones, Scanlon, Bourdeaux, Lieu, Leger Fernandez The Freedom to Vote Act, S. 2747, 117th Cong. §§ 1301-02 (2021)
The Protecting Election Administration from Interference Act of 2021, S. 2622, H.R. 5053, 117th Cong. (2021) Extends 52 U.S.C. § 20511(1)’s existing prohibition on voter intimidation to intimidation of election officials engaged in “processing or scanning of ballots, or tabulating, canvassing, or certifying voting results.” Senate: Klobuchar, Padilla, Ossoff, Merkley         House: Allred, Sarbanes, Veasey, Escobar, Slotkin, Lieu, Swalwell The Freedom to Vote Act, S. 2747, 117th Cong. § 3206 (2021)

Appendix D

State Initial Date of Passage Date(s) of Amendment (if applicable) Most Recent Effective Date Statutory Location in Code Relevant language
Alaska Renumbered in 1980 Alaska Stat. § 15.56.060. Unlawful interferance with an election Alaska Stat. § 15.56.060:
(a) A person commits the crime of unlawful interference with an election if the person
(1) induces or attempts to induce an election official to fail in the official’s duty by force, threat, intimidation, or offers of reward;
(2) intentionally changes, attempts to change, or causes to be changed an official election document including ballots, tallies, and returns;
(3) intentionally delays, attempts to delay, or causes to be delayed the sending of the certificate, register, ballots, or other materials whether original or duplicate, required to be sent by AS 15.15.370.
Arizona 2005 2020 Az. St. § 16-1004. Interference with or corruption of election officer; interference with voting equipment; violation; classification § 16-1004:
A. A person who at any election knowingly interferes in any manner with an officer of such election in the discharge of the officer’s duty, or who induces an officer of an election or officer whose duty it is to ascertain, announce or declare the result of such election, to violate or refuse to comply with the officer’s duty or any law regulating the election, is guilty of a class 5 felony.
B. A person who knowingly modifies the software, hardware or source code for voting equipment without receiving approval or certification pursuant to section 16-442 is guilty of a class 5 felony.
C. A person who knowingly impersonates any election official, including an election board member or other poll worker or a challenger or party representative designated pursuant to section 16-590, is guilty of a class 6 felony.
Note: section 590 addresses the Appointment of Challengers and party representatives
Arizona 1999 8/6/2016 Az. St. § 16-1005. Ballot abuse; violation; classification § 16-1005 E.:
A person or entity that knowingly solicits the collection of voted or unvoted ballots by misrepresenting itself as an election official or as an official ballot repository or is found to be serving as a ballot drop off site, other than those established and staffed by election officials, is guilty of a class 5 felony.
California 1994 2011 10/1/2011 Cal. Elec. Code § 18502. Interference with officers or voters; imprisonment § 18502:
Any person who in any manner interferes with the officers holding an election or conducting a canvass, or with the voters lawfully exercising their rights of voting at an election, as to prevent the election or canvass from being fairly held and lawfully conducted, is punishable by imprisonment pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170 of the Penal Code for 16 months or two or three years.
Colorado 1981 Co. St. 1-13-701. Interference with election official. § 1-13-701:
Any person who, at any election provided by law, interferes in any manner with any election official in the discharge of the election official’s duty or who induces any election official to violate or refuse to comply with the election official’s duty or any law regulating the same upon conviction shall be punished as provided in section 1-13-111.
Delaware 1953 15 Del.C. § 5161. Intimidation of election officers; penalty § 5161:
If any person, firm, corporation or employer existing or doing business in this State, hinders, coerces or intimidates or attempts to hinder, coerce or intimidate any person who has been appointed an election officer under the laws of this State from qualifying and performing such person’s duties as such by threats of depriving such person of employment or occupation, absolutely or contingently, directly or indirectly, shall be liable to a penalty of $500, recoverable by the Attorney General by civil action in any court of competent jurisdiction in the name of the State, and for the use and benefit of this State.
Florida 2005 7/1/2005 Fl. St. § 104.0615. Voter intimidation or suppression prohibited; criminal penalties § 104.0615:
2) A person may not directly or indirectly use or threaten to use force, violence, or intimidation or any tactic of coercion or intimidation to induce or compel an individual to:
(a) Vote or refrain from voting;
(b) Vote or refrain from voting for any particular individual or ballot measure;
(c) Refrain from registering to vote; or
(d) Refrain from acting as a legally authorized election official or poll watcher.
(3) A person may not knowingly use false information to:
(b) Induce or attempt to induce an individual to refrain from voting or registering to vote . . . .
(c) Induce or attempt to induce an individual to refrain from acting as a legally authorized election official or poll watcher.
(5) A person who violates subsection (2), subsection (3), or subsection (4) commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.
Kentucky 1974 1990 7/13/1990 Ky. St. § 119.155. Preventing voter from casting ballot; interfering with election § 119.155:
(1) Any person who unlawfully prevents or attempts to prevent any voter from casting his ballot, or intimidates or attempts to intimidate any voter so as to prevent him from casting his ballot, or who unlawfully interferes with the election officers in the discharge of their duties, shall be guilty of a Class D felony.(2) Any person who, by himself or in aid of others, forcibly breaks up or prevents, or attempts to break up or prevent, or obstructs or attempts to obstruct, the lawful holding of an election, shall be guilty of a Class A misdemeanor.
Kentucky 1974 7/13/1990 KRS § 119.255. Intimidation of election officer or board of elections. § 119.255:
Any person who, by threat of violence or in any other manner, intimidates or attempts to intimidate the election officers, the State Board of Elections or a county board of elections in the performance of their duty and any persons who conspire together and go forth armed for the purpose of intimidating said officers, shall be guilty of a Class D felony.
Louisiana 2011 § 18:1461.7. Miscellaneous election offenses; penalties § 18:1461.7:
No person shall knowingly, willfully, or intentionally:
(1) Fail to submit to the parish registrar of voters a completed registration application collected through a registration drive within thirty days of receipt of the completed application from the applicant.
(2) As a voter, election official, watcher, or person assisting a voter, allow a ballot to be seen, except as provided by law; announce the manner in which a person has cast his ballot; place a distinguishing mark on a ballot with intent to make the ballot identifiable, or make a false statement concerning ability to mark a ballot without assistance.
(3) When assisting a voter in voting, fail to mark the ballot or vote in the manner dictated by the voter.
(4) Being a physician, optometrist, physician assistant as defined in R.S. 37:1360.22, or nurse practitioner as defined in R.S. 37:913 certify to the disability of a voter under this Title or certify that a person will be hospitalized on election day, knowing such information to be false.
(5) Transmit or otherwise provide false or misleading information concerning an election from a source disguised to appear to be or while impersonating the secretary of state, a registrar of voters, a clerk of court, or other election official.
(6) Breach any mandatory provision of this Title.
Louisiana 2010 8/1/2012 La. R.S. § 18:1461.5. Election offenses involving bribery, threats or intimidation of election officials or candidates; penalties. § 18:1461.5:
A. No person shall knowingly, willfully, or intentionally:
(1) Offer money or anything of apparent present or prospective value or use, directly or indirectly, or engage in any form of intimidation to influence the action or encourage inaction of any election official with regard to the duties of his office.
(2) Give or offer to give, directly or indirectly, any money or anything of apparent present or prospective value to any person who has withdrawn or who was eliminated prior or subsequent to the primary election as a candidate for public office, for the purpose of securing or giving his political support to any remaining candidate or candidates for public office in the primary or general election.
(3) When such person is a candidate for public office who has withdrawn or was eliminated prior to or subsequent to the primary election, accept or offer to accept, directly or indirectly, any money, or anything of apparent present or prospective value that is given for the purpose of securing or giving his political support to any remaining candidate or candidates for public office in the primary or general election.
(4) (a) Give or offer to give, directly or indirectly, any money or any thing of apparent present or prospective value to a candidate for public office for the purpose of securing the candidate’s withdrawal from an election.
(b) Solicit or accept, directly or indirectly, money or any thing of apparent present or prospective value to secure the withdrawal from an election of a candidate for public office.B. Whoever violates any provision of this Section shall be fined not more than two thousand dollars or be imprisoned, with or without hard labor, for not more than two years, or both, for the first offense. On a second offense, or any subsequent offense, the penalty shall be a fine of not more than five thousand dollars or imprisonment at hard labor for not more than five years, or both.
Louisiana 1979 La. R.S. § 14:122: Public intimidation and retaliation. § 14:122:
A. Public intimidation is the use of violence, force, extortionate threats, or true threats upon any of the following persons, with the intent to influence his conduct in relation to his position, employment, or duty:
(1) Public officer or public employee.
(2) Grand or petit juror.
(3) Witness, or person about to be called as a witness upon a trial or other proceeding before any court, board or officer authorized to hear evidence or to take testimony.
(4) Voter or election official at any general, primary, or special election.
(5) School bus operator.(1) “Extortionate threats” occur when a person communicates an unlawful threat to harm another person with the intention to obtain anything of value or any acquittance, advantage, or immunity of any description and the person would not otherwise be able to lawfully secure such advantage willingly from the victim.
(2) “True threats” occur when a person communicates a serious expression of an intent to commit an unlawful act of violence upon a person or group of persons with the intent to place such persons in fear of bodily harm or death. The person need not actually intend to carry out the threat.
Maine 2022 2022 Sec. 1. 17-A MRSA §751, sub-§2, as amended by PL 1997, c. 351, §2, is further amended to read: 2. This section does not apply to: A. Refusal by a person to submit to an arrest or detention; or B. Escape by a person from official custody, as defined in section 755.; or C. Intentional interference by a person under Title 21-A, section 674, subsection E. Sec. 2. 21-A MRSA §674, sub-§3, C, as amended by PL 2003, c. 447, §20, is further amended to read: C. Votes by using the name of another; or Sec. 3. 21-A MRSA §674, sub-§3, D, as enacted by PL 2003, c. 447, §21, is amended to read: D. Attempts to vote by using the name of another.; or Sec. 4. 21-A MRSA §674, sub-§3, E is enacted to read: E. Intentionally interferes by force, violence or intimidation or by any physical act with any public official who is in fact performing or the person believe is performing an official function relating to a federal, state or municipal election.
Missouri 1977 11/7/2018 Rs. Mo. § 115.631. Class one election offenses § 115.631:
(24) Assisting a person to vote knowing such person is not legally entitled to such assistance, or while assisting a person to vote who is legally entitled to such assistance, in any manner coercing, requesting or suggesting that the voter vote for or against, or refrain from voting on any question, ticket or candidate;
(25) Engaging in any act of violence, destruction of property having a value of five hundred dollars or more, or threatening an act of violence with the intent of denying a person’s lawful right to vote or to participate in the election process; and
(26) Knowingly providing false information about election procedures for the purpose of preventing any person from going to the polls.
Nebraska 1994 1994 Interference with voter registration; penalty. R.R.S. Neb. § 32-1510 § 32-1510:
Any person who causes any breach of the peace or uses any disorderly violence or threat of violence which impedes or hinders any registration of voters or revision of voter registration lists or interferes with the lawful proceedings of any deputy registrar shall be guilty of a Class III misdemeanor.
Nevada 1960 Nev. St. 293.730. Unlawful interference with conduct of election; unlawful acts relating to certain ballots; unlawful acts inside polling place. § 293.730:
1. Except for an election board officer in the course of the election board officer’s official duties, a person shall not:
(a) Remain in or outside of any polling place so as to interfere with the conduct of the election.
New Mexico 1953 1969 1969 N.M. St. § 1-20-14. Intimidation § 1-20-14:
Intimidation consists of inducing or attempting to induce fear in any member of a precinct board, voter, challenger or watcher by use of or threatened use of force, violence, infliction of damage, harm or loss or any form of economic retaliation, upon any voter, precinct board member, challenger or watcher for the purpose of impeding or preventing the free exercise of the elective franchise or the impartial administration of the election or Election Code.
Whoever commits intimidation is guilty of a fourth degree felony.
North Carolina 1967 1979
1985
1987
1989
1991
1993
1995
2007
2013
2014
2015
2018
1/31/2019 NC St. § 163-275. Certain acts declared felonies § 163-275:
10) For any person to assault any chief judge, judge of election or other election officer while in the discharge of duties in the registration of voters or in conducting any primary or election.
(11) For any person, by threats, menaces or in any other manner, to intimidate or attempt to intimidate any chief judge, judge of election or other election officer in the discharge of duties in the registration of voters or in conducting any primary or election.
(17) For any person, directly or indirectly, to misrepresent the law to the public through mass mailing or any other means of communication where the intent and the effect is to intimidate or discourage potential voters from exercising their lawful right to vote.
North Dakota 1973 N.D. Cent. Code, § 12.1-14-02. Interference with Elections § 12.1-14-02:
A person is guilty of a class A misdemeanor if, whether or not acting under color of law, the person, by force or threat of force or by economic coercion, intentionally:
1. Injures, intimidates, or interferes with another because the other individual is or has been voting for any candidate or issue or qualifying to vote, qualifying or campaigning as a candidate for elective office, or qualifying or acting as an election official or an election observer, in any primary, special, or general election.
2. Injures, intimidates, or interferes with another in order to prevent that individual or any other individual from voting for any candidate or issue or qualifying to vote, qualifying or campaigning as a candidate for elective office, or qualifying or acting as an election official or an election observer, in any primary, special, or general election.
Ohio 2006 ORC Ann. § 3599.24 Interference with elections. § 3599.24:
(3) Attempt to intimidate an election officer, or prevent an election official from performing the official’s duties;
5) Loiter in or about a registration or polling place during registration or the casting and counting of ballots so as to hinder, delay, or interfere with the conduct of the registration or election;
(6) Remove from the voting place the pencils, cards of instruction, supplies, or other conveniences furnished to enable the voter to mark the voter’s ballot.
Ohio 1950 ORC Ann. § 3599.06 Employer shall not interfere with employee on election day. § 3599.06:
No employer, his officer or agent, shall discharge or threaten to discharge an elector for taking a reasonable amount of time to vote on election day; or require or order an elector to accompany him to a voting place upon such day; or refuse to permit such elector to serve as an election official on any registration or election day; or indirectly use any force or restraint or threaten to inflict any injury, harm, or loss; or in any other manner practice intimidation in order to induce or compel such person to vote or refrain from voting for or against any person or question or issue submitted to the voters.
Whoever violates this section shall be fined not less than fifty nor more than five hundred dollars.
Oklahoma 1974 2004 5/17/2004 Ok. St. 26 § 16-113. Interference with voter or conduct of election § 16-113:
Any person, including a lawfully appointed watcher or exit pollster, who interferes with a registered voter who is attempting to vote, or any person who attempts to influence the vote of another by means of force or intimidation, or any person who interferes with the orderly and lawful conduct of an election shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor.
Pennsylvania 1937 25 P.S. § 3527. Interference with primaries and elections; frauds; conspiracy § 3527:
If any person shall prevent or attempt to prevent any election officers from holding any primary or election, under the provisions of this act, or shall use or threaten any violence to any such officer; or shall interrupt or improperly interfere with him in the execution of his duty; or shall block up or attempt to block up the avenue to the door of any polling place; or shall use or practice any intimidation, threats, force or violence with design to influence unduly or overawe any elector, or to prevent him from voting or restrain his freedom of choice; or shall prepare or present to any election officer a fraudulent voter’s certificate not signed in the polling place by the elector whose certificate it purports to be; or shall deposit fraudulent ballots in the ballot box; or shall register fraudulent votes upon any voting machine; or shall tamper with any district register, voting check list, numbered lists of voters, ballot box or voting machine; or shall conspire with others to commit any of the offenses herein mentioned, or in any manner to prevent a free and fair primary or election, he shall be guilty of a felony of the third degree, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be sentenced to pay a fine not exceeding fifteen thousand ($ 15,000) dollars, or to undergo an imprisonment of not more than seven (7) years, or both, in the discretion of the court.
South Dakota 1939 2014 S.D. Codified Laws § 12-18-3 . Electioneering, offices, distracting communications devices, and signature gathering prohibited near polling place — Violation as misdemeanor. § 12-18-3:
Except for sample ballots and materials and supplies necessary for the conduct of the election, no person may, in any polling place or within or on any building in which a polling place is located or within one hundred feet from any entrance leading into a polling place, maintain a campaign office or public address system, or use any communication or photographic device in a manner which repeatedly distracts, interrupts, or intimidates any voter or election worker, or display campaign posters, signs, or other campaign materials or by any like means solicit any votes for or against any person or political party or position on a question submitted or which may be submitted. No person may engage in any practice which interferes with the voter’s free access to the polls or disrupts the administration of the polling place, or conduct any petition signature gathering, on the day of an election, within one hundred feet of a polling place. For the purposes of this section, the term, polling place, means a designated place voters may go to vote on the day of the election or go to vote absentee. A violation of this section is a Class 2 misdemeanor.
US Virgin Islands 1963 18 V.I.C. § 852 Undue influence of election official § 852:
Whoever, by force, threat, intimidation, or offers of reward, induces or attempts to induce any election official to fail in his duty, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than three years, or both.
West Virginia 1863 W. Va. Code § 3-9-10: Disorder at polls; prevention; failure to assist in preventing disorder; penalties. § 3-9-10:
Any person who shall, by force, menace, fraud or intimidation, prevent or attempt to prevent any officer whose duty it is by law to assist in holding an election, or in counting the votes cast thereat, and certifying and returning the result thereof, from discharging his duties according to law; or who shall, by violence, threatening gestures, speeches, force, menace or intimidation, prevent or attempt to prevent an election being held; or who shall in any manner obstruct or attempt to obstruct the holding of an election, or who shall, by any manner of force, fraud, menace or intimidation, prevent or attempt to prevent any voter from attending any election, or from freely exercising his right of suffrage at any election at which he is entitled to vote, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, fined not more than one thousand dollars, or confined in the county jail for not more than one year, or both, in the discretion of the court.
Any person who, being thereto commanded by the commissioners of election, or either of them, shall fail or refuse to assist to the utmost of his power, in whatever may be necessary or proper to prevent intimidation, disorder or violence at the polls, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than ten nor more than one hundred dollars.
Wyoming 1973 1983
1998
1/1/1999 Wy. St. § 22-26-111. Intimidation § 22-26-111:
(a) Intimidation consists of:
(i) Inducing, or attempting to induce, fear in an election official or elector by use of threats of force, violence, harm or loss, or any form of economic retaliation, for the purpose of impeding or preventing the free exercise of the elective franchise or the impartial administration of the Election Code.